How Are Minerals Formed?


MINERALS are naturally occurring, inorganic solids, with a characteristic chemical composition, having a regular atomic structure throughout. Man-made industrial diamonds are not considered true minerals but, having said that, there are also some Organic Minerals, such as Amber, which purists are reluctant to call minerals, but they satisfy at least three of the criteria for mineral makeup, and therefore the point is open to debate.

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How Many Minerals are there? There are about 4000 listed minerals on this planet but only a relatively few have gained popularity due to their pleasing appearance, often bizarre shapes, exquisite spectrum of colours, and trading value. Minerals are generally composed of more than one element or compound. Those which are made up of only one element are called Native Elements e.g. gold, silver, mercury, copper. The Conquistadores fell in love with New World gold and "liberated" it by the ship-load to fill the coffers of Government and Church in Spain. Silver too, along with Topaz, Tourmaline, Agate, Ruby, Diamond and many other precious rocks and minerals, have been highly prized for as long as Man was first enchanted by their beauty, commercial value and status it imparted to the wearer.

So, just how are minerals formed? Minerals can be formed in a wide variety of geological environments; deep inside volcanos, at the bottoms of deep oceans, deserts, salt lakes and cooling deep deposits of molten rock. Also, under the influence of heat and or pressure, when solutions and gasses holding concentrations of specific elements cool or evaporate, minerals growths are deposited inside rock fissures or voids. These minerals are sometimes forced through as a suspension in water, the water then evaporating leaving the mineral deposits as crystals (e.g. Amethyst) when the rock void is not fully filled or as Agates, when the rock is completely filled. These minerals are only visible when the rock is split open; it takes some skill to decide which rock to crack open! More about that later. An example of such crystal and mineral specimens for collectors are Geodes which are round rocks containing precipitated mineral salts, these being commonly Agates (caused by mineral salt crystals forming inside Basalt rocks), Amethysts, Quartz, Jasper.

Minerals don't necessarily need heat or pressure to be formed; water saturated with mineral salts can leave deposits (Stalactites) as it drips down from the roof of a cave, forming corresponding Stalagmites directly below, over the centuries, where the drips hit. Eventually both grow to meet each other and thicken over the years. Sometimes, as a novelty, tourists can hang an item on a line at a cave, over which calcium carbonate saturated water runs; over a period of a few months it becomes encased in a hardening deposit of Calcium Carbonate.


Ok, the basic scene has been set, now let's examine in more detail the different mechanisms involved in mineral formation. All minerals are formed from ROCKS, which are an aggregate or mixture of various minerals and are the basic materials from which a mineral is formed.

Rocks can be either:

Igneous - formed due to volcanic activity from the Earth's core.

Metamorphic - formed because of pressure or heat (e.g. tectonic plates colliding) on existing rocks, changing them into another type of rock.

Sedimentary - resulting from the layered compaction of weathered rock materials and/or shells.

Let us examine these rocks a little further:-

IGNEOUS ROCKS(from the Latin ignis - fire) can be further categorised as being or Extrusive.

Mineral crystals formed from Intrusive igneous rocks have a coarse structure because the cooling effect was slow and the crystals could grow for a long time, sometimes to a large size, especially when molten rock (magma) is trapped under ground and cools very slowly. Granite is an example of a commonly found intrusive rock. Other examples are:-



Pegmatite (Pegmatites are known to contain aquamarine, tourmaline, beryl, topaz, cassiterite, fluorite, apatite, tin and tungsten plus a host of other minerals.

These rocks are generally only exposed after mountain-forming upheavals, when rocks deep down are thrust to the surface due to Tectonic Plate Convergence. The Himalayas, for example, are currently still being pushed up by convergence forces.

Extrusive rocks are magma ejected from volcanos and cooling rapidly on the Earth's surface. This means that their crystal structure is generally very small to microscopically small, as the crystals did not have sufficient time to develop. Obsidian (a glass-like black rock still used today by some surgeons because it keeps its sharp edge, down to one molecule!) & Basalt (the Giant's Causway at the northern tip of Irleand) are two commonly found extrusive rocks, as are:-





METAMORPHIC ROCK MINERALS (from the Greek meta after, morphe form) are formed when sufficient heat and pressure change the original rock into a completely new rock. The original rock can be sedimentary, igneous or metamorphic. The most important Metamorphic mechanism is heat, changing the rock's chemical structure at temperatures above 200 Celsius, breaking down the crystalline structures in the rock and converting them into new minerals. If the temperature becomes too high, the metamorphic action stops and the rocks become igneous. Marble is a common example of metamorphised limestone.

(hot water with dissolved ions) can also be responsible for changing parent rocks and is responsible for producing Sulphide minerals (e.g. Pyrite & Galena) and also Copper on the sea floor when the hot mineral-enriched water contacts the sea water.

Metamorphic Minerals - most of the minerals in following list are found exclusively in Metamorphic rock:-











SEDIMENTARY ROCK MINERALS. (from the Latin sedimentum - a settling). Sedimentary rocks are the basic building blocks from which nearly all metamorphic rocks are formed; it is the sedimentary rocks which are drawn down or pushed up by tectonic activity. While igneous & metamorphic rocks produce some of the finest mineral/gemstone specimens, the minerals in sedimentary rocks are not quite so impressive in form or range, though some sedimentary rock can also include igneous & metamorhic minerals as these rocks crumble due to weathering & being dissolved in water. Sedimentary rocks are also a mirror of the past, the different layers telling a story of what the Earth's climate was like over the millions of years the rocks were forming, especially because of the fossil content as, unlike the other two types of rock, the heat & pressures produced in sedimentary rock formation is not enough to destroy fossil evidence.


CLASTIC Sedimentary Rock is layered or Lithified (from the Greek Lithos - rock) by deposits of erroded debris of other rocks (due to weathering, frost, glacial action, or water). Most of the igneous rock minerals (with the exception of Quartz, which is very hard) are attacked over time by water, acids & alkalis and changed into clay minerals and chemicals in solution. Other minerals in Clastic sedimentary rock, like Zircon, Rutile & Magnetite are inert and highly resistant to mechaincal & chemical breakdown.

Clastic rock also contains the minerals feldspar, quartz, amphiboles & clays.

Minerals found in clastic sedimentary rocks are in the classes of Halides, Sulphates, Borates.

BIOGENIC SEDIMENTARY ROCKS are made up of materials from living organisms, i.e. corals, molluscs & amoeboid organisms, which deposit layers of calcite over the ocean floors, which later form limestone. Other examples of minerals found in biogenic rocks are stromatolites and flint.

PRECIPITATE SEDIMENATRY ROCKS are formed when mineral solutions e.g. sea water, evaporate and deposit minerals such as Halite & Gypsum.

And finally, a list of mineral classes (for those who love lists!)

Classes of Minerals.

All minerals found in igneous, metamorphic & sedimentary rocks can be classified as follows:-

1. Elemental (Diamond, Gold, Silver)

2. Sulphides,Selenides,Telurides,Arsenides,Antimonides, Bismutides (Galena, Pyrite, Chalcoprite)

3. Halides (Fluorite, Carnalite)

4. Oxides & Hydroxides (Corundum, Quartz, Hematite, Magnetite)

5. Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates, Tungstenates, (Barite, Selenite)

6. Phosphates, Arsenates, Vanadates (Variscite, Mimetite, Vanadinite,)

7. Silicates (Opal, Zircon, Talc, Tourmalines, Topaz)

8. Nitrates, Carbonates, Borates (Calcite, Malachite, Azurite)

9. Organic Minerals (Amber, Whewellite, Oxammite)

I hope the information has been of help to you in your quest for answers as to how are minerals formed. The subject of Mineralogy can be developed to great scientific depths, but I have tried to present the information in a format anyone can understand. I hope this small offering has whetted your appetite for further research! Later, I will be adding some information on where and how to find some of the most popular minerals & gemstones. Happy hunting!

How Are Minerals Formed?

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The Pros and Cons of Getting Cosmetic Surgery

While many cosmetic surgeries are done to correct a disfigurement due to an accident or birth defect the majority of the cosmetic surgery procedures done today are purely for aesthetic reasons.

Many Hollywood stars resort to plastic surgery to maintain their youthful appearance so they can keep working and to some degree this "look good at all costs" mindset has trickled down to the masses to the point where some teens want cosmetic surgery as birthday or Christmas presents.


The one thing that is often overlooked by many people though is that no matter if you're getting a facelift or tummy tuck plastic surgery is a medical procedure and there are risks involved that should be seriously considered before going under the knife.

Pros of Cosmetic Surgery

If you have been a victim of an accident or were born with a birth defect such as a cleft palate cosmetic surgery can be a blessing in that it can restore your appearance to what it was or should have been.

Today's skilled surgeons can do many things not possible even several years ago from eliminating ugly scar tissue to literally rebuilding a person's face and there are technological advances every day that allow for even more complicated procedures that can potentially help people who before had no options available to them.

For those born with a birth defect surgery can remove the stigma often associated with the defect and allow the person to live a normal life without feeling abnormal or defective.

Some people are very conscientious about their appearance to the point of having serious psychological issues and cosmetic surgery along with proper counseling can help these individuals gain the self-esteem and confidence they need to live and work in the competitive world we live in today.

Cons of Cosmetic Surgery

For those that have cosmetic surgery there is always a chance that something will go wrong and they may end up worse off than before. Doctors can and do make mistakes and sometimes no matter how good the surgeon is the end result is no better than before the surgery.

There is also the risk of infection, various complications, etc. that is part of any surgery not to mention the pain involved and recovery time needed to get back to normal.

If the cosmetic surgery is done as an elective procedure for to enhance your appearance the odds are that your insurance company will not cover the cost and you will have to pay for it yourself. Like any surgical procedure, plastic surgery is not cheap and too often people will go into debt to try and obtain that perfect nose or stomach which can lead to serious financial problems.

Before getting any cosmetic surgery no matter what the reason make sure you get all the facts from experienced board certified plastic surgeons and understand the costs and risks involved. It is only then that you will be able to make an informed decision as to whether or not to go ahead with the surgery.

The Pros and Cons of Getting Cosmetic Surgery

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Beauty Tips

1. Your foundation will look only as good as the skin underneath. To get an even, smooth look, cleanse and exfoliate regularly.

2. If you have sensitive skin and are prone to allergic reactions make sure you test new cosmetics on a small patch either on the inside of your arm or your neck. If after 24 hours you don't have a reaction it is safe to use the product.


3. If you have acne or find you cannot use any skin care products without getting an allergic reaction or dry itchy skin, make an appointment with a dermatologist.

4. Use mascara sparingly. Using too much will make your eyelashes stick together and form into blobs. Dip your brush only once to do both eyes making sure you twist, not pump the brush.

5. No matter how tempting it might be to drop into bed after being out late, don't do it. Your skin will thank you if you remove all traces of makeup and apply your skin care cream before going to bed.

6. Take care of the skin around your neck as well as your face by applying moisturizer. This is a delicate area which is quick to show wrinkles.

7. Cosmetics do not last forever and using old products can cause irritations. Here are some guidelines:

* Foundation - 1 year

* Concealer - 1 year

* Powder - 2 years

* Mascara - 3 months

* Lipstick - 1 year

* Eye pencil - 1 year

* Eye Shadow - 1 year

* Powder Blush - 2 years

* Cream Blush - 6 months

* Moisturizer - 1 year

* Eye Cream - 1 year

* Sun Screen - l year

©2005 Sheila Dicks

Beauty Tips

Sheila Dicks is an Image and Wardrobe consultant who teaches women how to dress to suit their body type and look slimmmer. You can reach her at to download her ebook, "Image Makeovers" and get "How to Build a Wardrobe" ebook free.

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The Beauty and Meaning of Birthstones

Birthstones have been around since ancient times, and in those days were believed to possess some magical force that could protect the owner or wearer of the stone. These birthstones were traditionally linked to the Zodiac.

However, modern birthstones are linked to calendar months, and each month has its own unique birthstone, with its own fabled properties. Many people love to wear jewellery set with their birthstone, as the ancient meanings and associations with these stones still intrigue them.


You can get many types of jewellery containing birthstones, such as birthstone rings, a birthstone pendant and birthstone earrings. Giving someone an item of jewellery set with their birthstone is a touching and wonderful gift, and whether you give them a birthstone ring, a birthstone pendant or a birthstone brooch, it is something that they are likely to treasure forever because it has real meaning and significance.

Below you will find a listing of each of the birthstones used today.


The birthstone for this month is the garnet, which was once thought to be connected with the blood. This stone is supposed to protect the wearer from nightmares and offer guidance through the dark.

Garnets are long lasting and durable gems, with a fiery, ravishing beauty. This is type of gem that the wearer will treasure forever, no matter what item of jewellery it is set into. Garnets are traditionally thought of as deep red, but actually come in a wide range of colours, so there is something to suit every taste for this month.


The birthstone for this month is the amethyst, and the folklore attached to this gem associates it with sobriety, tranquillity, protection and peace. This birthstone as also been linked to improving the skin and preventing baldness, as well as protection from deceit, so it has a lot to live up to!

The amethyst birthstone comes in varying shades of purple, and can be a pale lilac in colour. On the other end of the scale, you can also get deep violet amethysts, which means that you can enjoy a birthstone that is as subtle or as rich as you like. This birthstone is very hardwearing, and its strength and durability will ensure that it lasts for a very long time.


This month's birthstone is aquamarine, which has been linked to the making of new friends as well as affection and love, hope and health. This stone was once also thought to protect those at sea.

As the name of this birthstone suggests, it is a green-blue in colour and has a rich, sparkling look. You can get aquamarine birthstones in a variety of shapes and sizes, and you can also get this stone in varying shades of green-blue.


One of the most popular gems throughout history, diamonds are the birthstone for this month, and these stones are linked to love, eternity and strength. This has contributed towards diamonds being the most popular gems of all time when it comes to romance, such as engagement rings and wedding bands.

Diamonds are very strong and hardwearing, making them the perfect birthstone to wear on a daily basis. You can enjoy many different cuts of this stone, and the fiery, glamorous sparkle given off by diamonds is positively captivating.


This month's birthstone is the beautiful emerald, once linked to health and the curing of ailments, as well as being associated with the ability to see in to the future, giving them an almost bewitching, magical reputation.

These fiery green gems are amazing to look at, and can be found in a variety of shapes and cuts. The beauty and richness of this stone makes it the perfect gem for birthstone jewellery, and is something that the wearer can show off and take pride in for a long time.


The elegant pearl is the birthstone for the month of June, and this gem has been linked with chastity and modesty, making it something of an angelic, pure birthstone. They are also linked to successful and happy marriages.

These round, stunning birthstones come in a variety of colours, and a range of sizes. Pearls can look spectacular yet modest in all manner of jewellery from birthstone rings, to earrings and necklaces, making them a perfect gift.


The birthstone for this month is the ravishing ruby, a stone traditionally linked with protection and harmony. This birthstone has been mined since ancient times, and boasts a spectacular beauty.

Deep red in colour, rubies are stunning birthstones that will liven up and enhance any piece of jewellery. These gems have a unique, vivid and fiery appearance that would delight anyone.


The birthstone for the month of August is peridot, which was commonly linked with protection against evil and night terrors, as well as a gem that enhanced the properties of healing drugs.

Lime green in colour, this birthstone is a by-product of volcanic action, and comes in all sorts of shapes and sizes. This birthstone gives off its own unique energy, and is strong and durable.


Sumptuous sapphire is the birthstone associated with September, and this gem has been linked with faith and purity, as well as foresight. It was thought that the stronger the sparkle of the gem, the more faithful and honest the wearer.

These birthstones look stunning in all types of jewellery, especially in white gold and platinum metal. However, sapphires can come in other colours as well as blue. These are strong and durable gems that will last for years to come, and can be passed down to future generations.


The birthstone of October is the opal, a stone that has been linked to purity, hope and innocence. This gem has also been linked to healing forces, friendship and emotion, so it has experienced its fair share of folklore over the years.

This type of birthstone comes in white or black, and both variations have remnants of other colours within them. Opals have a unique look and beauty, making them a very interesting birthstone with a strangely exquisite appearance.


The birthstone for this month is topaz, once linked with sanity, healing, and life, as well as being connected to strength by the ancient Greeks. This stone has even been linked to an ability to make the wearer invisible in dangerous situations.

This birthstone comes in a range of colours, all of which will enhance any jewel with a fiery sparkle. Colours include golden, blue, pale green, pink and red, as well as some other rare colours. A stunning gem, topaz boasts both beauty and strength.


The given birthstone for December is turquoise, and this precious stone was once linked to happiness, fortune and luck, making it a very popular gem in centuries gone by.

Turquoise can range in colour from mid-blue to a green-blue or light green colour, and this birthstone is unusual and beautiful, making it a very distinctive and unusual addition to any jewellery collection.


Giving a birthstone to someone special as a gift means giving so much more than just a piece of jewellery. The ancient meanings associated with each of these birthstones make them extra-special, giving them a quality that is impossible to achieve with any other gem.

Whether you decide to give a birthstone ring, necklace earrings or any other piece of jewellery, you will always find stunning pieces where the precious metal and the birthstone complement one another perfectly. Birthstone jewellery makes a unique, beautiful, and affordable gift with real sentiment behind it.

The Beauty and Meaning of Birthstones

Award winning author and freelance writer, Reno Charlton has completed a number of informative articles providing consumer information on such topics as birthstones and gemstones, promise rings, and celtic wedding rings.

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The Positive and Negative of Osmosis Pur Medical Skin Care

Osmosis Pur Medical Skin Care is made with Chirally correct ingredients that are made with the safe left handed molecules that are not harmful to the skin. With products that are chiral, you will find you receive a very result oriented outcome and feel confident you are protecting your skin. No harsh ingredients to make your skin irritated or sensitive. Dr. Johnson is a big believer in not bringing trauma to the skin by overly aggressive ingredients that may harm the skin's protective barrier. Osmosis takes it a step further and uses the very best ingredients and brings them to the consumer at a price they can afford.

The Positive Reasons for using Osmosis.


The whole premise for the Osmosis skin care line is to remodel the skin and help to heal skin conditions below the surface of the epidermis. This entails usage for anti-aging, acne, rosacea, melasma and psoriasis. There have been many testimonial from clients that have used these products successfully. It is important to follow a good regime to bring the best results for each individuals particular skin issues.

As with good medical grade type skin care, it is best to purchase from your esthetician or physician. It is very beneficial for the consumer to understand the products correctly and how to use them. Osmosis has made this easy with the products they manufacture. Their kits are put together with the proper products to use for each skin type. Having someone to guide you to find the best results for your skin is important.

At times when you start a good regime for your skin, you may find that your skin may go through a transition period.. This is not unpleasant. Underlying bacteria or pigmentation may come up from below and positive changes start happening. With proper guidance, this will pass and beautiful skin will appear. The total outlook is lovely, healthy, vibrant skin. Skin you may feel proud of and know you look more youthful. There are many products that sit on top of the epidermis and do not make any significant changes to the skin. With Osmosis you can be sure it is working from within the dermis where it counts.

It is possible to be ageless today. You do not need plastic surgery or botox. By using the proper products and routine, you can turn back on clock on aging. Repair sun damaged skin, acneic skin and that red irritated skin from rosacea or psoriasis. Osmosis helps to rid the skin of the bad skin cells and restore them to give you a healthy vibrant complexion.

As you age, you must keep your skin hydrated and exfoliate the dead skin cells. Osmosis will do this for you. The older you are, the less your skin exfoliates naturally. Let products such as Mend, Correct, Renew or Boost do this or you. The key ingredient in these products is Retinaldehyde. Stronger than retinol and more gentle on the skin. No negative side effects, just safe noticeable results. The exfoliation is very mild as not to bring distress to the skin.

Two of the latest products Osmosis has brought to the public are Catalyst and Skin Nutrition. Both can help repair the DNA of the skin. You will see improvement in pigmentation, acne, rosacea, and for everyone, anti-aging. Both products are far superior to many ingredients on the market and way ahead of their time. They are made for all skin types. The most popular of all the Osmosis products is Replenish. Replenish is an antioxidant, which brings all the nutrition your skin is craving for.

The Negatives of using Osmosis

The negatives of Osmosis is using the product for a week and not giving it a chance to work. When you repair the skin, you have to give your products time to work. Osmosis Skin Care recommends a full 30 days to start seeing the type of results you have always dreamed of. It is important for recommendations on the right products for your skin type. Products that will be effective for your skins special requirements. Start with an easy simple regime, and add a new product when you are ready to take your skin to the next level. Not using Osmosis is the negative. Look younger each day. Turn the hands of time back.

The Positive and Negative of Osmosis Pur Medical Skin Care

JoElla Milan is a licensed Esthetican and Skin Care Consultant, bringing you the "Best for Less" and has sold and helped her clients with their skin issues for more than 17 years online. Her successful beauty site is full of information and guidance on which products to use. She specializes in all skin types. She is very educated in skin care and keeps current with what is new. Read her beauty blog

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Massage Technique - Petrissage


This stroke referred to as petrissage (derived from 'petrir' meaning 'to knead'). Petrissage can be subdivided into picking­ up, wringing, squeezing and rolling. If you are good at kneading dough then you will quickly become an expert!

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It is an extremely powerful and vigorous movement, which enables you to work deeply on the muscles. You may apply it to every area of the body, except for the face, and it is effective on the fleshy areas such as the hips and thighs. In picking-up, place your hands flat on the part being treated and grasp the muscle (not the skin) firmly with one or both hands, then pull it as far away as possible from the bone.

Once you have picked up the muscle you may squeeze it gently. Squeezing is particularly effective in alleviating muscle spasm. You may now roll the muscle in both directions - your thumbs may roll the muscle towards your fingers or your fingers may roll the muscle towards your thumbs. Wringing is a variation on picking-up. It is picking-up with a twist! The muscle is picked up and then pulled towards you and 'wrung' out. Imagine that you are wringing out a towel or a chamois leather.


  • By alternately squeezing and relaxing, the veins and lymphatic vessels are emptied and filled, bringing fresh nutrients to the muscles.

  • Any toxins that have accumulated are removed from the deeper tissues.

  • Petrissage is invaluable in helping to break down and remove fatty deposits around the thighs, shoulders and buttocks.

  • It also helps to prevent muscle stiffness after exercise and can relieve muscle spasm.

Errors to avoid

  • Make sure that you use the whole of your hand rather than just your fingers and your thumbs;

  • Pick up the muscle and not the skin otherwise there is the danger of pinching the flesh. Do not slide your fingers over the receiver's skin.

Massage Technique - Petrissage

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Our Guide to the Best Affordable Skin Care For a 50 Year Old Woman

People often inquire about the best affordable skin care for a 50 year old woman. This is because the skin care routine for women who are above 50 is not the same as that of a 20 year old woman. Although makeup and other products should be used with extreme care, the importance of skin care should not be neglected even at this age.

A lot of hormonal changes take place inside a woman's body when she goes through the phase of menopause. Many diseases and conditions occur as a result of menopause including some skin disorders. Wrinkles and aging signs are two of the most worrisome conditions in women over 50 years of age.


The best affordable skin care for a 50 year old woman can be a single product or a system consisting of different products like toner, cleanser and moisturizer. A lot of women at this age do not bother a lot about their appearance. They have already passed the stage when men would turn their heads to see the beauty passing-by.

Often at this age women gain a lot of weight. As a result they have sagged skin and fine lines on their face. Many treatments are available for the tightening of the skin but they are mostly very expensive and not suitable for all women.

Nutritional supplements can be used as an alternative to surgery and laser treatment but they may not prove to be very effective at this age. However, many women find it easy and convenient to take oral pills and capsules as a way to restore a part of their youthful beauty.

Anti-aging skin care can be employed by these women as the best affordable skin care for a 50 year old woman. This treatment includes the application of some effective topical creams and lotions over the face and neck to remove signs of aging. These products normally contain ingredients like phytessence wakame, cynergy TK and CoQ10 which are excellent for the treatment of sagged and wrinkled skin.

These ingredients are found in only reputed brands and products. They help to make our skin tighter and more firm by stimulating the natural proteins found in our connective tissues. These proteins, such as collagen and elastin, are required for proper skin health. Always find anti-aging products that contain these essential ingredients.

The best affordable skin care for a 50 year old woman should be chosen after careful research. At this age, you cannot afford to try products that may contain harmful ingredients such as preservatives, alcohols and fragrances. The above-mentioned tips are useful for women above 50 years of age who want to bring back some of the glow and radiance of their skin.

Our Guide to the Best Affordable Skin Care For a 50 Year Old Woman

John Gibb is a dedicated researcher of skin care health and products. He shares his research on his website - Natural Skincare If you have unwanted wrinkles, fine lines and damaged skin, visit - How to achieve the best looking skin naturally now to learn about the skin care line our editors personally use and recommend.

We have personally been using these products with excellent results.

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The History of Plastic Surgery

The popularity of plastic surgery procedures is a trend that continues to grow, as men and women alike attempt to improve their physical appearance and eliminate what they view as cosmetic flaws.

So where did plastic surgery begin? In this brief article, I'll explain exactly where cosmetic surgery got it's start and how it has evolved over the years.


Plastic surgery actually dates back to the 700s BCE. In India, Doctors began to use skin grafts for reconstructive work as early as the 8th century BC. A well-known Physician named Sushruta Samhita documented detailed descriptions of rhinoplasty and otoplasty.

The Romans were also involved in the beginning days of cosmetic surgery. There began performing surgeries to repair damaged ears around the 1st century BC. Because of the dangers associated with surgeries of any form, especially those that involved the head or facial area, it wasn't until the 19th and 20th centuries that this became more commonplace.

Naturally, the early cases of cosmetic surgery were quite painful due to a lack of anesthesia. Practitioners were able to avoid infection however once disinfectants and sterilization techniques were introduced. The invention of antibiotics was also a dramatic step forward in the world of surgical procedures.

Dr. John Peter Mettauer was the United State's first plastic surgeon and in 1827, he successfully performed the very first cleft palate surgery. These procedures continued to grow in popularity during the 20th century in the U.S.

As you can see, plastic surgery isn't exactly a new procedure. It has been around for ages and will continue to grow in popularity as new techniques are introduced. Some of the most popular procedures today include laser surgery, dermabrasion, liposuction, rhinoplasty (nose jobs), chemical peel, abdominoplasty (tummy tucks), rhytidectomy (face lifts), and breast augmentation.

The History of Plastic Surgery

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Makeup For Rosacea - How to Choose the Best Cosmetics For Rosacea

Makeup for Rosacea can help to increase your self esteem by improving the appearance of your skin and helping to tone down the redness. There are many products on the market today, but how can you know which makeup will be good for your skin?

Rosacea causes redness on the skin and is often aggravated by skin care products. These products usually contain many unnatural ingredients that can make the redness worse.


There are many makeups out there that can be used on skin that is effected by Rosacea. Mineral makeup is a good choice for a couple of reasons.

It has less ingredients than many of the makeup brands out there, and the ingredients are natural. Many mineral makeups will not irritate sensitive skin.

It also can be applied with a brush. Makeup brushes are great for people with sensitive skin because they are very gentle on the skin and they can be cleaned daily. This is a great method to ensure that access bacteria does not get on the skin by makeup sponges and even your own fingers.

Mineral makeups are also oil-free. They will not clog the pores and cause more redness or acne to add to your Rosacea.

It is important, however, to choose a mineral makeup that does not contain irritating ingredients such as Bismuth Oxychloride. This ingredient has been found to cause redness and irritation, and it is not recommended for those with sensitive skin or Rosacea.

Choosing the right makeup for Rosacea can make all the difference when you are getting ready for your day. You will look fabulous,and it will reflect in the way you feel about yourself.

Makeup For Rosacea - How to Choose the Best Cosmetics For Rosacea

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5 Reasons Why People Get Cosmetic Surgery

Cosmetic surgery is very common these day, it is no longer only accessible to rich and famous. Any person in the world can have the procedure the want done, most people think cosmetic surgery is unsafe but it is only unsafe if your surgeon is not qualified.

Here are the 5 top reasons why most people get cosmetic surgery.


1. Health Reasons.

Some people may have gone through rough times caused by sickness or massive weight loss, so it's only natural for people to correct the damage caused by their illness. People may want to fix a problem that maybe causing health issues and surgery is the only option available, some people need surgery to survive.

2. Accidents.

Another reason why people get cosmetic surgery is because they have been in a accident. Minor car crashes, sports, work accident anything you can think of. Because of accidents people can become severely deformed and cosmetic/plastic surgery is the only option to help fix peoples injuries.

3. Self Esteem.

Some people choose to get cosmetic surgery to boost their self esteem. They need a boost and they think cosmetic surgery will give them that. In my opinion it does, people are extremely grateful to see the new changes to there bodies that they have always wanted.

4. Re constructive Surgery.

Re constructive procedures correct deformities on the face or body. These include physical birth defects like cleft lips and palates and ear deformities, traumatic injuries like those from dog bites or burns, or the aftermath of disease treatments like rebuilding a females breast after they have undergone surgery for breast cancer.

5. Vanity

Some people say vanity is the reason why people get cosmetic surgery, in some cases it is the case. Botox, Face lifts, Breast Augmentation can all be considered vanity procedures. But it is a choice and people choose to have these procedures performed and if it contributes to there self esteem who are we to judge.

5 Reasons Why People Get Cosmetic Surgery was created to help women whom are considering plastic surgery procedures as an option & to provide as much information in order to help make a confirmed decision.

Visit us at - Your Plastic Surgery info Guide.

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Acne During Menstruation - Time to Combat It!

For women, one of the most likely times to develop acne other than pregnancy is during menstruation. It is very common to have breakouts of acne during menstruation, and this usually occurs on the lower face, chin and jawline.

As you may be aware, acne during menstruation is mainly caused due to hormonal fluctuations that occur in your body during the menstrual cycle. Many women may feel embarrassed about this condition because they don't want a sign for everyone telling them 'it's that time' again. This is especially true for women who only develop acne during the menstrual cycle. However, a few lifestyle changes now can prevent further breakouts.


As mentioned, acne during menstruation can be affected by hormonal imbalances. Acne at this time is mainly influenced by androgens which are hormones that stimulate the sebaceous glands and hair follicles in the skin. One of the major players that can affect the levels of androgens is stress. Thus high stress levels can promote further acne flare ups. This is a vicious circle, because the appearance of acne may increase a woman's stress levels. To avoid this take measures to control your stress levels. Perhaps you could take up yoga, meditate, have a relaxing bath anything that will work for you.

Any major player in causing acne can be diet. Studies have shown that acne occurs more frequently during the week before menstruation and these conditions remain present for about a week. Eating healthier around this time should help but it is best to have a balanced diet overall and not just at this time. If you eat healthily it will be obvious by your skin. Ensure you provide your body with the nutrients it needs like vitamins, minerals and supplements.

Consuming foods that you are allergic to can contribute to acne before menstrual period. Many women do not know about all of their allergies and can thus inadvertently eat foods that lead to acne, such as shellfish, nuts, soy products, and wheat or gluten. If you eat such foods and find yourself with acne before menstrual period, you need to carefully examine your diet to determine if it is the source of your skin problems.

Never underestimate the power of water, keeping your skin hydrated can yield great results.

Another factor that can have great results on acne is improving your skin care regime. Cleaning your face too much or scrubbing too hard can result in skin irritation or stimulate overproduction of oil and pores to clog. Products that contain alcohol should be avoided, stick to those with gentle exfoliation and those that contain natural treatments such as tea tree oil. There are many over the counter products, it's a matter of finding what works best for you.

Cosmetic products can also play havoc with your skin. The best cosmetics to buy are those that are non-comedogenic, in other words oil free. These will prevent pores becoming clogged. Cosmetics and perfumes labeled hypo-allergenic will ensure you don't get skin irritations or allergic reactions.

So if you experience acne during menstruation, don't panic, instead use your efforts take measures on preventing it.

Acne During Menstruation - Time to Combat It!

The steps above provide a starting point for curing acne [], for more free advice and some tips that may seem strange, especially the treatment for back acne [], visit acne free now.

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Frequently Asked Questions About Permanent Makeup

Frequently Asked Questions About Permanent Cosmetics

Q2) What is the recovery time for permanent makeup?


A2) Everyone is different, but a general rule would be 3-7 days on the surface, and another 10-14 days below the surface. It is common for a person to return to work the same day. Lips will have some residual swelling and will chap. There may be slight swelling after the eyeliner; brows may look darker than usual - all of which softens in a few days.

Q5) Can I still wear traditional makeup over the tattooed area?

A5) Yes, after the area has healed. Permanent makeup is designed to be only an enhancement to your natural features. Wearing additional cosmetics is a

personal choice that enhances your permanent makeup.

Q6) What if I decide to have cosmetic surgery?

A6) Plastic surgery has no affect on properly placed permanent makeup. However, if you're contemplating plastic surgery, you may opt for the surgery before the permanent makeup.

Q7) What reaction is common regarding permanent makeup?

A7) Women are usually amazed at how awesome, natural and subtle permanent makeup is. They wish they had done it a decade ago. No more smudged makeup, daily hassle, etc. Life has become simpler!

Q8) Who would benefit?

A8) Active women and men ... those needing feature correction; people with allergies to make-up ... athletes ... the vision impaired ... alopecia sufferers ... those looking for a natural look - or those looking for something more dramatic.

Q9) How is it done?

A9) A sterilized, disposable needle is used to implant hundreds of tiny dots of colored pigment beneath the basal (top) layer of the skin enhancing natural features.

Q10) Does it hurt?

A10) The topical numbing anesthetic creams used today are much stronger than in years past. If you follow the simple rules beforehand of: no alcohol, aspirin, blood-thinning medications, Vitamin E, garlic or herbal supplements 3, preferably 5 days prior to your appt. will greatly reduce any discomfort associated with the procedure. Also, have no caffeine the day of the procedure. Following these guidelines greatly increases your comfort level during your permanent makeup procedure.

Q11) How long will it take?

A11) Most of the procedures require approximately 2-3 hours. The most important part of all the procedures is the artwork and choosing colors, both of which require approval by the client.

Q12) How soon will the results be visible?

A12) Within seven days you will notice a visible difference. We require all of our clients to come in for verification 30 days after creation at which time any adjustments will be made (if necessary).

Q13) How long will it last?

A13) Normally one to five years maybe longer. Re-enhancements otherwise known as "touchups' or "refresher color boosts" are recommended for maintenance. You must remember that permanent makeup is a "low", not a "no" maintenance procedure. You eventually will need a color touchup when your color fades. Once the color lightens you will know that you are ready for your refresher color boost! You cannot avoid this fact - everything fades with time, especially anything out in the sun.

Q14) What about allergies?

A14) Those with allergies are particularly good candidates to permanent makeup. If you are prone to allergies, you may ask the technician about an allergy test. The allergy test will be done using a red pigment. The red pigment is usually the one that will cause the most noticeable allergic reaction if there will be a reaction at all. Reactions are rare.

Q15) What does it cost?

A15) Fees vary according to the creation required and will be determined at a free consultation. But remember, you get what you pay for. You can expect to pay anywhere from 0-0 per procedure, depending on your technician and your location. The smart thing to do is to for sure not to choose the cheapest artist, but you need not choose the most expensive artist either.

Q16) What if the shape isn't what I want?

A16) The eyebrows are drawn on with semi-permanent marker prior to the start of any procedure, so you will see exactly what is going to be done before anything permanent is applied.

Q17) What about removal of pigment?

A17) We call removal "pigment lifting" which is available and works very well if the technician is trained in the process. Typically only small areas should be attempted to be lifted with either a salt/saline mixture or a similar "lifting" product, used for this purpose only- trying to removal larger areas of permanent makeup pigments will require more extensive treatment, such as a laser. Under these circumstances, contact a dermatologist.

Frequently Asked Questions About Permanent Makeup

Although Nancy is Board Certified by the American Academy of Micropigmentation, she has retired from performing procedures. See her website:

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7 Healing Steps to a New Story and a New You

As some of you know I was injured this winter. The Cliff notes version of what happened is that someone collided with me on the ski slopes which caused a concussion (and yes I was wearing my helmet) and a hole in the lining of my carotid artery wall which closed off the artery and then led to a small stroke. The doctor told me that of three people he knows of that had this same carotid artery tear, one is ok, one is a vegetable, and one is dead. Are you beginning to understand why I am so happy and grateful to be here?

I often think about how the Law of Attraction applies to my life. So, at first, I just couldn't understand why I had this accident and got hit in the head because I was having a wonderful time when the accident happened. I tried to understand what the universe was trying to tell me that I just wasn't getting. After all, the universe hit me in the head, I thought.


As I spent countless hours surfing the couch this winter I meditated on this confusion. I thought back over the previous year which had been one of the most stressful years of my life. I began to understand the accident was related to the year long stress and the story I continued to tell about it.

What have I learned from my experience?

1) First, I was reminded that I really need to take better care of myself. All last year I worked long hours, was chronically stressed, and pushed myself really hard despite the death of my beloved, Bob. I just kept going like the energizer bunny.

2) Now I limit my work load and have a waiting list (there are 4 people on it right now). I get more rest. And I added walking and dancing back into my routine.

3) I focus on telling my new story instead of my old one. Instead of constantly thinking about the bad things that have happened I give more energy to what I want to create. I focus more on what I DO want instead of what I don't want.

4) During my healing journey I imagined myself well again. I imagined my artery completely healed. I envisioned how good it feels to dance. I imagined myself out in nature when I wasn't yet allowed to go for walks. I talked out loud to myself about how good it feels when my body is perfectly well and how I love feeling well and enjoy the sense of well being and ease.

5) Instead of telling the same old story of what's been going on in my life over and over again, I realized I need to tell the story how I want it to be. I looked at and spoke about how I want things to be and practiced feeling like I already have them. What we see in our lives is a reflection of our chronic thoughts and beliefs. I made my thoughts and my story positive.

6) I focused on the positives. I thought of one thing I could still do right then. I thought of people I could ask for help if I needed it. I talked out loud to myself about the amazing ability of my body to heal. I told my self "all is well, I am okay, things are getting easier every day, I am never alone". I reached for a feeling of relief.

7) I also continued to express gratitude about the positive things in the situation. I was thankful I was alive. I was thrilled that there just happened to be a dental/facial cosmetic surgeon in the Emergency Room when I arrived who stitched up the gaping tear in my lip. I was thankful for all the people at the ski lodge who took care of me that first night and for the couple who helped to drive me home from VT. I was grateful for the sunshine coming through my window as I surfed my couch. I was thankful for the friends who visited me in the hospital, gave me a ride home, took care of my mail and cockatiel while I was in the hospital, and shoveled my driveway. I was grateful for my new level of compassion for my clients with head injury. I could go on. But I think you get the idea.

Last week the Neurologist told me my artery healed about 2 months faster than originally predicted. Yahoo!

I know my work to rewrite my story, to imagine myself well and healed, my gratitude, as well as my efforts to interrupt the chronic patterns of negative thought helped me heal faster than expected.


Think about how you tell your story. Notice how often you fall back to telling your same old negative story. Tell your new story. It is amazing how fast you can see the results. When I tell people I feel great (even if I am not all that great right then) I actually feel much better than when I tell them how bad I have been feeling. Try it for yourself and see how it works for you.

7 Healing Steps to a New Story and a New You

Debra Burdick, LCSW, BCIA-EEG, The Brain Lady, owns Advanced Options, LLC, a private psychotherapy and Neurofeedback practice in Waterford, CT. Advanced Options, LLC is the home of the BRAIN FITNESS TRAINING PROGRAM, which combines outpatient psychotherapy services, Cognitive/Behavioral Therapy and Neurofeedback to help clients of all ages to improve their lives by helping them feel better, think better, and perform at their peak. For more information, please visit

Thanks To : Secret Natural Beauty Tips

Recommended Age to Start Using Make Up

Every little girl wants to play with her mommy's make up. After all, imitating Mommy is what little girls spend most of their time doing, and one of the only "off limits" things they see Mommy do is apply make up. Playing dress up is fine occasionally, but when your daughter enters her preteen and teen years, she is going to want to start wearing makeup more often. You are probably wondering whether or not wearing make up is a good idea, particularly for her complexion. When your daughter starts asking to wear it, keep these thoughts in mind.

Proper Skin Care Is a Must


Before your daughter begins to wear make up, make sure she is consistently cleaning and moisturizing her face properly. The age when she will be mature enough to keep up with this task is going to be different from girl to girl, but when your daughter is consistently washing and moisturizing her face properly, she is probably ready to start wearing make up.

If you feel that she is forgetful in this area, postpone the introduction of make up, because she is going to damage her complexion if she does not get the cosmetics washed off properly. Be sure to choose organic skin care products, as they will be easier on her skin than unnatural chemically based products.

Start Slowly

One problem with giving your daughter permission to start using makeup is the fact that she is likely to overdo it at first. Girls want to wear everything, and this can make them look much older than they really are. Emphasize age appropriateness when you give your daughter her first make up product. Starting with a light lip-gloss and foundation is ideal. You can then move to some slight eye make up and some blush. Again, using organic products is ideal, because they will be the most gentle on her skin, helping to preserve her complexion.

Be Sensitive to Her Needs

Some girls struggle with acne and other skin conditions. Preteens with bad acne or other skin concerns may benefit from some foundation and concealer, even if they are too young to be wearing full make up. If your daughter needs the help of concealer or foundation to cover a skin condition, let her use it, even if she is a little young.

So What Age Is Best?

The answer to the best age to start wearing make up really depends on the maturity of the girl in question. In some families, make up is one of the privileges of becoming a teenager, and girls are allowed to start using it at age 13 or 14. In other families, parents keep make up for special occasions only until the girl is a bit older. Some parents choose to give their daughters permission to use one type of make up at a time, reserving the heavier items, like mascara and eyeliner, for the last ones introduced to the routine. Others decide to wait until the late teens or early adult years to let their girls wear make up on a daily basis, as there is little need for a younger teen to wear it regularly in most cases.

Regardless of the age you choose to let your daughter wear make up, be sure that your daughter knows how to properly apply make up to best complement her individual features. Take her to a department store and have the make up artists show her how to apply the products. They will do this, usually for free, in an attempt to sell their products. You do not have to buy the products, but you can do this to help your daughter learn proper application techniques, and then let her use her own organic make up to make herself look beautiful at home.

Recommended Age to Start Using Make Up

Dr. Hauschka products includes natural make up and effective holistic skin care that is designed to activate the skin's natural healing process and address the underlying cause of problems rather than simply mask the symptoms.

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Where Did Makeup Originate? A Glance at the History of Makeup

The origin of make-up dates back to 3100 BC, during the 1st Egyptian Dynasty. Unguent, a substance used to prevent the skin from drying up due to heat and to avoid wrinkles, was extensively used by people of both genders during that era. The women of Egypt were known to apply kohl to their eyes to give them a smoky look. Antimony or soot was usually used to make kohl.

The use of cosmetics and make up was found among Romans also. They grew popular approximately around the middle of 1st century AD. Kohl was now used by Romans too. The cheeks were decorated with rouge. You would be amazed to know that people used to take good care of their teeth along with their skin. For cleaning teeth, Romans used pumice.


Henna dyes were used by Persian women for darkening their hair. Pale skin became very popular during the European time. A lot of women used harmful substances to achieve a pale look, which in turn spoiled their skin to a large extent. During the Renaissance period of Italy, women started using lead paint in order to lighten their skin, which in fact proved damaging.

Due to the damaging effect, makeup was criticised during the time of Elizabeth I. Cosmetics came to be seen as a threat and people started avoiding them. Except for prostitutes who donned themselves with heavy makeup, people usually shied away from it.

The French loved to adorn their lips with red lipsticks, and wore rouge on their cheeks. Though earlier it was repulsed by other countries, eventually it trickled down to other parts of the world also.

A lot of people started using herbal products to make cosmetics and makeup. Herbs, flower extracts, vegetable extracts, strawberries, brandy, spring water etc were widely used. Unfortunately pale complexion was still considered royal and so the efforts of most women were directed towards achieving skin lightness. The use of whiteners and blemish removers proved fatal at times. One of the most lethal products was white lead, which not only caused harm to the skin cells but also led to hair loss and stomach problems.

The irony is that, in spite of knowing the harm they are causing to their body, women continued using dangerous cosmetics like white lead for the face, belladonna for the eyes, and even mercury and nitric acid. Shockingly enough, coal tar was used to dye hair.

Even today a lot of people use harmful cosmetics, though thankfully the focus is shifting towards safer products.

Where Did Makeup Originate? A Glance at the History of Makeup

Jane Walters is co-owner of The Beauty House Academy, a Brisbane based beauty school that provides training of an exceptional standard. Jane's passion is the beauty industry, and she is wanting to impart some of her 27 years experience gained in 3 countries, into the young therapists that are coming into the industry today. Her standards are high and her expectations of her students great, but this coupled with her passion and knowledge make the academy one of the best that Brisbane has to offer.

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Cleopatra's Beauty Secrets

The Legendary Queen of Egypt was known for her exquisite complexion. One of her secret beauty treatments, the milk and honey bath are still being used today.

One of the main ingredients, Milk, contains lactic acid, which helps to exfoliate your skin. The lactic acid in milk is an alpha hydroxy acid, which helps to cleanse the deepest layers of the skin.


Honey has an abundance of health properties. First of all, it is composed of sugars like glucose and fructose so it is also a gentle alpha hydroxy acid. It's made up of both minerals and vitamins to help nourish and heal the skin. Since it also contains phytochemicals that kill viruses, bacteria, and fungus, it's has a natural anti-inflammatory effect which heals wounds quickly. This makes honey a good substitute for wound dressings.

Here are a couple of ways to enjoy these 2 main ingredients found in her ancient beauty secrets.

Cleopatra Honey & Milk Bath


o 1/2 Cup Powdered Milk

o 1/2 Cup Raw Honey

o 2 teaspoon Jojoba Oil (optional)

Mix ingredients in a large bowl and pour your warm bath. Soak for up to 20 minutes to infuse these beneficial ingredients in your skin. This recipe makes enough for one bath.

Milk & Honey Rinse for Wrinkled Skin


o 1 oz raw honey

o 1 Cup skim milk

o 2 teaspoons aloe vera gel

Combine Ingredients in a jar and shake well. Apply to your face morning and evening with a cotton ball. Store mixture in the refrigerator for up to 3 weeks.

Incorporating these beauty recipes in your daily regime will help you to experience healthy, vibrant, and ageless skin.

Cleopatra's Beauty Secrets

Danielle Sims explored her library of alternative health, herbal books, and aromatherapy books and created a blueprint for making her own body wrap formulas at home. Now she offers this information in an e-book entitled Wrap Yourself Slim: Body Wrap Exposed. Monthly newsletter is also available at her web site. For more information go to Body Wraps Exposed

Thanks To : Secret Natural Beauty Tips No-No-Acne

Animal Testing - The Pros and Cons

There are many people who hold strong opinions about the ethics of animal testing for drugs and cosmetics, but we wondered just how well they have considered the pros and cons of the matter. For that reason we decided to write this short article.

Fine, let us get started. On one side you have the "Pro", the positions in favor:


The number one point in support for animal testing is that animal testing, when used for drug testing, and to a lesser extent for cosmetics testing, should make it safer for humans to use these products without unacceptable risks of significant side effects occurring.

The second supporting point will be that surely society and the drug and cosmetics companies should make sure that everything that can be done to protect human health when using new products, is done before a drug or a cosmetic product is put on the market, and that would include animal testing.

For balance then let's listen to the other side, those opposed, the "Con" side:

The 1st point in contra for this type of testing will be that it is a very big leap on some occasions to say that once animal testing is completed and shows no significant negative effects on animals, a product will be safe for human consumption. Humans and animals can react quite differently to chemicals and the animal tests may be useless in protecting human health when this happens. It is possible on such occasions that animals may be made to suffer without there being any positive outcome from their suffering.

The second point in contra will be the fact that surely there will be some animal suffering, involved on many occasions, otherwise the tests would not be undertaken in the first place

The 3rd point in contra is going to be that it is hard to justify any suffering even among animals for frivolous products, which may include some cosmetics in the minds of many people.

A fourth negative point is that as human tests will be needed, and humans must in the end be subjected to trials on the products first investigated using animal tests, surely it should be possible to find a way to avoid the animal testing stage, in some way.

5th and lastly, against is that the continued use of animals for testing new products may inhibit the development of other techniques for doing the same tests, which could otherwise be devised by scientists.

So there we have all the arguments from each side.

Finally then, what is the "bottom line" here? Is animal testing ) bad or good?

The reply is apparently "Yes" to both questions! animal testing cannot, we are told by the scientists involved, be completely avoided to stop discomfort and possibly some pain to animals, as without animal testing human users would be put at greater risk when using these products (pharmaceutical drugs, cosmetics etc). Now that is a mixture of good and bad... You, our reader must pick which side, the good or the bad, outweighs the other.

Animal Testing - The Pros and Cons

Find out some ways to live in harmony with planet earth, and cease threatening its wonderful diversity of life by visiting my climate change web site.

There are great dog breed information articles, and many others about all aspects of keeping dogs as pets, at The Dog Breeds Compendium.

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Foundation Makeup - Should You Use Liquid or Powder?

Foundation makeup is the key to whether your makeup will look good or bad. The application of a foundation will help to smooth out your skin tone, conceal blemishes and give you a more healthy glow. Applying makeup without a foundation base can actually enhance unsightly skin problems, rather than conceal them. But before you head out to the store, here are some basic rules that should be followed when making your product selection.

How Do I Choose A Foundation Makeup Base?


First, you need to select the correct color for your skin tone. Often times, people choose foundations that are either too light - making them look pale and washed out - or too dark - which often leaves a line of makeup between the jaw and neck. Generally, you will look like you're wearing a mask. The foundation color that you choose must blend in with your natural skin tone.

Also keep in mind that your skin tone color will change with the seasons. In the summer, you will most likely need a slightly darker foundation color, as your skin will tan somewhat (even if you don't purposely suntan - you still need to go outside sometimes.) In the winter your skin will lighten again back to its original tone and you should use your natural base color foundation makeup.

Deciding Between Liquid and Powder Foundations

The next decision is to determine whether you would prefer powder foundation or liquid foundation makeup. This tends to be more personal choice, although there are pros and cons to both types.

Most women seem to prefer the liquid foundation base. It appears to be quicker and much easier to apply. As well, once blended into the skin, liquid foundation makeup appears more natural and lighter, giving the skin a smooth, even appearance. However, how it is applied can also make a difference. Applying too much will cause streaks and spots that look "heavier" then others on your skin. Using a makeup sponge rather than using a fingers can help a lot with creating a smooth, even appearance. Apply a small amount of liquid foundation at a time and blend in carefully.

Another advantage of a liquid foundation is that it absorbs into the skin rather than sitting on top of it, so you get a more natural skin tone appearance. It also comes in a variety of bases to suit women with dry skin, normal skin, oily skin, combination skin, and sensitive skin types.

Powder foundations are a less popular choice, but can work just as well as liquid foundation makeup. It's easy to apply and there is less blending involved. They are also great for people that have very oily skin, as the powder will soak up the oil and prevent a greasy appearance. You can also carry a compact powder case with you on days when you need to do a slight touch up to your makeup or on days that are hot and humid, to rid your face of shine.

A slight problem with powders, however, is that they can look like they are caked on your face if applied to heavily or after a couple of hours in warm weather. They also tend to rub off on clothes easier since the powder sits on top of your skin.

Another Choice: Liquid-Powder Foundations

Liquid-powder foundation combinations are another choice that is gaining in popularity. The foundation makeup comes in a compact, much like powder bases, but contains a somewhat creamy mixture. Application of this foundation gives a smooth appearance, like a liquid, with the absorption benefits of a powder. However, you have to be careful when applying this type of foundation, since a heavy hand will give you a caked appearance. Like liquids, the key is to apply it lightly and blend well. This combination is not the best for people with dry skin as it will also give you a patchy skin appearance. Choose this type of product if you have normal to oily skin.

If this is the first time you are going to buy a foundation, you should visit a make-up counter that allows you to try out the various products or seek out a professional make-up artist to help you with your selection. For those that have problem skin, such as severe acne breakouts, you should visit a dermatologist first. They can help you with making a wiser choice on the type of foundation makeup would work best, plus provide you with other skin care options to help clear up underlying problems.

Remember, the best makeup techniques start with a good foundation that is appropriate for your skin type and skin tone. Be smart and take the time to research what is out there before spending money on any product. You'll be happy you did.

Foundation Makeup - Should You Use Liquid or Powder?

(c) Rose Smith, owner of Wedding Themes and More has been helping couples plan theme weddings for nearly a decade. Get great tips, advice and ideas on how to plan a fabulous themed wedding celebration at

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